HyperConvergence – Tech-Coffee https://www.tech-coffee.net Wed, 11 Jan 2017 08:59:43 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.2.7 65682309 2-node hyperconverged cluster with Windows Server 2016 https://www.tech-coffee.net/2-node-hyperconverged-cluster-with-windows-server-2016/ https://www.tech-coffee.net/2-node-hyperconverged-cluster-with-windows-server-2016/#comments Fri, 07 Oct 2016 08:01:52 +0000 https://www.tech-coffee.net/?p=4827 Last week, Microsoft announced the final release of Windows Server 2016 (the bits can be downloaded here). In addition, Microsoft has announced that Windows Server 2016 supports now a 2-node hyperconverged cluster configuration. I can now publish the setup of my lab configuration which is almost a production platform. Only SSD are not enterprise grade and ...

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Last week, Microsoft announced the final release of Windows Server 2016 (the bits can be downloaded here). In addition, Microsoft has announced that Windows Server 2016 supports now a 2-node hyperconverged cluster configuration. I can now publish the setup of my lab configuration which is almost a production platform. Only SSD are not enterprise grade and one Xeon is missing per server. But to show you how it is easy to implement a hyperconverged solution it is fine. In this topic, I will show you how to deploy a 2-node hyperconverged cluster from the beginning with Windows Server 2016. But before running some PowerShell cmdlet, let’s take a look on the design.

Design overview

In this part I’ll talk about the implemented hardware and how are connected both nodes. Then I’ll introduce the network design and the required software implementation.

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Hardware consideration

First of all, it is necessary to present you the design. I have bought two nodes that I have built myself. Both nodes are not provided by a manufacturer. Below you can find the hardware that I have implemented in each node:

  • CPU: Xeon 2620v2
  • Motherboard: Asus Z9PA-U8 with ASMB6-iKVM for KVM-over-Internet (Baseboard Management Controller)
  • PSU: Fortron 350W FSP FSP350-60GHC
  • Case: Dexlan 4U IPC-E450
  • RAM: 128GB DDR3 registered ECC
  • Storage devices:
    • 1x Intel SSD 530 128GB for the Operating System
    • 1x Samsung NVMe SSD 950 Pro 256GB (Storage Spaces Direct cache)
    • 4x Samsung SATA SSD 850 EVO 500GB (Storage Spaces Direct capacity)
  • Network Adapters:
    • 1x Intel 82574L 1GB for VM workloads (two controllers). Integrated to motherboard
    • 1x Mellanox Connectx3-Pro 10GB for storage and live-migration workloads (two controllers). Mellanox are connected with two passive copper cables with SFP provided by Mellanox
  • 1x Switch Ubiquiti ES-24-Lite 1GB

If I were in production, I’d replace SSD by enterprise grade SSD and I’d add a NVMe SSD for the caching. To finish I’d buy server with two Xeon. Below you can find the hardware implementation.

Network design

To support this configuration, I have created five network subnets:

  • Management network: 10.10.0.0/24 – VID 10 (Native VLAN). This network is used for Active Directory, management through RDS or PowerShell and so on. Fabric VMs will be also connected to this subnet.
  • DMZ network: 10.10.10.0/24 – VID 11. This network is used by DMZ VMs as web servers, AD FS etc.
  • Cluster network: 10.10.100/24 – VID 100. This is the cluster heart beating network
  • Storage01 network: 10.10.101/24 – VID 101. This is the first storage network. It is used for SMB 3.11 transaction and for Live-Migration.
  • Storage02 network: 10.10.102/24 – VID 102. This is the second storage network. It is used for SMB 3.11 transaction and for Live-Migration.

I can’t leverage Simplified SMB MultiChannel because I don’t have a 10GB switch. So each 10GB controller must belong to separate subnets.

I will deploy a Switch Embedded Teaming for 1GB network adapters. I will not implement a Switch Embedded Teaming for 10GB because a switch is missing.

Logical design

I will have two nodes called pyhyv01 and pyhyv02 (Physical Hyper-V).

The first challenge concerns the failover cluster. Because I have no other physical server, the domain controllers will be virtual. if I implement domain controllers VM in the cluster, how can start the cluster? So the DC VMs must not be in the cluster and must be stored locally. To support high availability, both nodes will host a domain controller locally in the system volume (C:\). In this way, the node boot, the DC VM start and then the failover cluster can start.

Both nodes are deployed in core mode because I really don’t like graphical user interface for hypervisors. I don’t deploy the Nano Server because I don’t like the Current Branch for Business model for Hyper-V and storage usage. The following feature will be deployed for both nodes:

  • Hyper-V + PowerShell management tools
  • Failover Cluster + PowerShell management tools
  • Storage Replica (this is optional, only if you need the storage replica feature)

The storage configuration will be easy: I’ll create a unique Storage Pool with all SATA and NVMe SSD. Then I will create two Cluster Shared Volumes that will be distributed across both nodes. The CSV will be called CSV-01 and CSV-02.

Operating system configuration

I show how to configure a single node. You have to repeat these operations for the second node in the same way. This is why I recommend you to make a script with the commands: the script will help to avoid human errors.

Bios configuration

The bios may change regarding the manufacturer and the motherboard. But I always do the same things in each server:

  • Check if the server boot in UEFI
  • Enable virtualization technologies as VT-d, VT-x, SLAT and so on
  • Configure the server in high performance (in order that CPUs have the maximum frequency available)
  • Enable HyperThreading
  • Disable all unwanted hardware (audio card, serial/com port and so on)
  • Disable PXE boot on unwanted network adapters to speed up the boot of the server
  • Set the date/time

Next I check if the memory is seen, and all storage devices are plugged. When I have time, I run a memtest on server to validate hardware.

OS first settings

I have deployed my nodes from a USB stick configured with Easy2Boot. Once the system is installed, I have deployed drivers for motherboard and for Mellanox network adapters. Because I can’t connect with a remote MMC to Device Manager, I use the following commands to list if drivers are installed:

gwmi Win32_SystemDriver | select name,@{n="version";e={(gi $_.pathname).VersionInfo.FileVersion}}
gwmi Win32_PnPSignedDriver | select devicename,driverversion

After all drivers are installed, I configure the server name, the updates, the remote connection and so on. For this, I use sconfig.

This tool is easy, but don’t provide automation. You can do the same thing with PowerShell cmdlet, but I have only two nodes to deploy and I find this easier. All you have to do, is to move in menu and set parameters. Here I have changed the computer name, I have enabled the remote desktop and I have downloaded and installed all updates. I heavily recommend you to install all updates before deploying the Storage Spaces Direct.

Then I configure the power options to “performance” by using the bellow cmdlet:

POWERCFG.EXE /S SCHEME_MIN

Once the configuration is finished, you can install the required roles and features. You can run the following cmdlet on both nodes:

Install-WindowsFeature Hyper-V, Data-Center-Bridging, Failover-Clustering, RSAT-Clustering-Powershell, Hyper-V-PowerShell, Storage-Replica

Once you have run this cmdlet the following roles and features are deployed:

  • Hyper-V + PowerShell module
  • Datacenter Bridging
  • Failover Clustering + PowerShell module
  • Storage Replica

Network settings

Once the OS configuration is finished, you can configure the network. First, I rename network adapters as below:

get-netadapter |? Name -notlike vEthernet* |? InterfaceDescription -like Mellanox*#2 | Rename-NetAdapter -NewName Storage-101

get-netadapter |? Name -notlike vEthernet* |? InterfaceDescription -like Mellanox*Adapter | Rename-NetAdapter -NewName Storage-102

get-netadapter |? Name -notlike vEthernet* |? InterfaceDescription -like Intel*#2 | Rename-NetAdapter -NewName Management01-0

get-netadapter |? Name -notlike vEthernet* |? InterfaceDescription -like Intel*Connection | Rename-NetAdapter -NewName Management02-0

Next I create the Switch Embedded Teaming with both 1GB network adapters called SW-1G:

New-VMSwitch -Name SW-1G -NetAdapterName Management01-0, Management02-0 -EnableEmbeddedTeaming $True -AllowManagementOS $False

Now we can create two virtual network adapters for the management and the heartbeat:

Add-VMNetworkAdapter -SwitchName SW-1G -ManagementOS -Name Management-0
Add-VMNetworkAdapter -SwitchName SW-1G -ManagementOS -Name Cluster-100

Then I configure VLAN on vNIC and on storage NIC:

Set-VMNetworkAdapterVLAN -ManagementOS -VMNetworkAdapterName Cluster-100 -Access -VlanId 100
Set-NetAdapter -Name Storage-101 -VlanID 101 -Confirm:$False
Set-NetAdapter -Name Storage-102 -VlanID 102 -Confirm:$False

Below screenshot shows the VLAN configuration on physical and virtual adapters.

Next I disable VM queue (VMQ) on 1GB network adapters and I set it on 10GB network adapters. When I set the VMQ, I use multiple of 2 because hyperthreading is enabled. I start with a base processor number of 2 because it is recommended to leave the first core (core 0)  for other processes.

Disable-NetAdapterVMQ -Name Management*

# Core 1, 2 & 3 will be used for network traffic on Storage-101
Set-NetAdapterRSS Storage-101 -BaseProcessorNumber 2 -MaxProcessors 2 -MaxProcessorNumber 4

#Core 4 & 5 will be used for network traffic on Storage-102
Set-NetAdapterRSS Storage-102 -BaseProcessorNumber 6 -MaxProcessors 2 -MaxProcessorNumber 8

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Next I configure Jumbo Frame on each network adapter.

Get-NetAdapterAdvancedProperty -Name * -RegistryKeyword "*jumbopacket" | Set-NetAdapterAdvancedProperty -RegistryValue 9014

Now we can enable RDMA on storage NICs:

Get-NetAdapter *Storage* | Enable-NetAdapterRDMA

The below screenshot is the result of Get-NetAdapterRDMA.

Even if it is useless because I have no switch and other connections on 10GB network adapters, I configure DCB:

# Turn on DCB
Install-WindowsFeature Data-Center-Bridging

# Set a policy for SMB-Direct
New-NetQosPolicy "SMB" -NetDirectPortMatchCondition 445 -PriorityValue8021Action 3

# Turn on Flow Control for SMB
Enable-NetQosFlowControl -Priority 3

# Make sure flow control is off for other traffic
Disable-NetQosFlowControl -Priority 0,1,2,4,5,6,7

# Apply policy to the target adapters
Enable-NetAdapterQos -InterfaceAlias "Storage-101"
Enable-NetAdapterQos -InterfaceAlias "Storage-102"

# Give SMB Direct 30% of the bandwidth minimum
New-NetQosTrafficClass "SMB" -Priority 3 -BandwidthPercentage 30 -Algorithm ETS

Ok, now that network adapters are configured, we can configure IP addresses and try the communication on the network.

New-NetIPAddress -InterfaceAlias "vEthernet (Management-0)" -IPAddress 10.10.0.5 -PrefixLength 24 -DefaultGateway 10.10.0.1 -Type Unicast | Out-Null
Set-DnsClientServerAddress -InterfaceAlias "vEthernet (Management-0)" -ServerAddresses 10.10.0.20 | Out-Null

New-NetIPAddress -InterfaceAlias "vEthernet (Cluster-100)" -IPAddress 10.10.100.5 -PrefixLength 24 -Type Unicast | Out-Null

New-NetIPAddress -InterfaceAlias "Storage-101" -IPAddress 10.10.101.5 -PrefixLength 24 -Type Unicast | Out-Null

New-NetIPAddress -InterfaceAlias "Storage-102" -IPAddress 10.10.102.5 -PrefixLength 24 -Type Unicast | Out-Null

#Disable DNS registration of Storage and Cluster network adapter (Thanks to Philip Elder :))

Set-DNSClient -InterfaceAlias Storage* -RegisterThisConnectionsAddress $False
Set-DNSClient -InterfaceAlias *Cluster* -RegisterThisConnectionsAddress $False

Then I try the Jumbo Frame: it is working.

Now my nodes can communicate with other friends through the network. Once you have reproduced these steps on the second node, we can deploy the domain controller.

Connect to Hyper-V remotely

To make future actions, I work from my laptop with remote PowerShell. To display the Hyper-V VM consoles, I have installed RSAT on my Windows 10. Then I have installed the Hyper-V console:

Before being able to connect to Hyper-V remotely, some configurations are required from the server and client perspectives. In both nodes, run the following cmdlets:

Enable-WSManCredSSP -Role server

In your laptop, run the following cmdlets (replace fqdn-of-hyper-v-host by the future Hyper-V hosts FQDN):

Set-Item WSMan:\localhost\Client\TrustedHosts -Value "10.10.0.5"
Set-Item WSMan:\localhost\Client\TrustedHosts -Value "fqdn-of-hyper-v-host"
Set-Item WSMan:\localhost\Client\TrustedHosts -Value "10.10.0.6"
Set-Item WSMan:\localhost\Client\TrustedHosts -Value "fqdn-of-hyper-v-host"

Enable-WSManCredSSP -Role client -DelegateComputer "10.10.0.5"
Enable-WSManCredSSP -Role client -DelegateComputer "fqdn-of-hyper-v-host"
Enable-WSManCredSSP -Role client -DelegateComputer "10.10.0.6"
Enable-WSManCredSSP -Role client -DelegateComputer "fqdn-of-hyper-v-host"

Then, run gpedit.msc and configure the following policy:

Now you can leverage the new Hyper-V manager capability which enable to use an alternative credential to connect to Hyper-V.

Domain controller deployment

Before deploying the VM, I have copied the Windows Server 2016 ISO in c:\temp of both nodes. Then I have run the following script from my laptop:

# Create the first DC VM
Enter-PSSession -ComputerName 10.10.0.5 -Credential pyhyv01\administrator

$VMName = "VMADS01"
# Create Gen 2 VM with dynamic memory, autostart action to 0s and auto stop action set. 2vCPU
New-VM -Generation 2 -Name $VMName -SwitchName SW-1G -NoVHD -MemoryStartupBytes 2048MB -Path C:\VirtualMachines
Set-VM -Name $VMName -ProcessorCount 2 -DynamicMemory -MemoryMinimumBytes 1024MB -MemoryMaximumBytes 4096MB -MemoryStartupBytes 2048MB -AutomaticStartAction Start -AutomaticStopAction ShutDown -AutomaticStartDelay 0 -AutomaticCriticalErrorAction None -CheckpointType Production

# Create and add a 60GB dynamic VHDX to the VM
New-VHD -Path C:\VirtualMachines\$VMName\W2016-STD-1.0.vhdx -SizeBytes 60GB -Dynamic
Add-VMHardDiskDrive -VMName $VMName -Path C:\VirtualMachines\$VMName\W2016-STD-1.0.vhdx

# Rename the network adapter
Get-VMNetworkAdapter -VMName $VMName | Rename-VMNetworkAdapter -NewName Management-0

# Add a DVD drive with W2016 ISO
Add-VMDvdDrive -VMName $VMName
Set-VMDvdDrive -VMName $VMName -Path C:\temp\14393.0.160715-1616.RS1_RELEASE_SERVER_EVAL_X64FRE_EN-US.ISO

# Set the DVD drive as first boot
$VD = Get-VMHardDiskDrive -VMName $VMName -ControllerNumber 0 -ControllerLocation 1
Set-VMFirmware -VMName $VMName -FirstBootDevice $VD

# Add a data disk to the VM (10GB dynamic)
New-VHD -Path C:\VirtualMachines\$VMName\data.vhdx -SizeBytes 10GB -Dynamic
Add-VMHardDiskDrive -VMName $VMName -Path C:\VirtualMachines\$VMName\Data.vhdx

# Start the VM
Start-VM
Exit

# Create the second DC VM with the same capabilities as below
Enter-PSSession -ComputerName 10.10.0.6 -Credential pyhyv02\administrator
$VMName = "VMADS02"

New-VM -Generation 2 -Name $VMName -SwitchName SW-1G -NoVHD -MemoryStartupBytes 2048MB -Path C:\VirtualMachines

Set-VM -Name $VMName -ProcessorCount 2 -DynamicMemory -MemoryMinimumBytes 1024MB -MemoryMaximumBytes 4096MB -MemoryStartupBytes 2048MB -AutomaticStartAction Start -AutomaticStopAction ShutDown -AutomaticStartDelay 0 -AutomaticCriticalErrorAction None -CheckpointType Production

New-VHD -Path C:\VirtualMachines\$VMName\W2016-STD-1.0.vhdx -SizeBytes 60GB -Dynamic
Add-VMHardDiskDrive -VMName $VMName -Path C:\VirtualMachines\$VMName\W2016-STD-1.0.vhdx
Get-VMNetworkAdapter -VMName $VMName | Rename-VMNetworkAdapter -NewName Management-0
Add-VMDvdDrive -VMName $VMName
Set-VMDvdDrive -VMName $VMName -Path C:\temp\14393.0.160715-1616.RS1_RELEASE_SERVER_EVAL_X64FRE_EN-US.ISO
$VD = Get-VMHardDiskDrive -VMName $VMName -ControllerNumber 0 -ControllerLocation 1
Set-VMFirmware -VMName $VMName -FirstBootDevice $VD
New-VHD -Path C:\VirtualMachines\$VMName\data.vhdx -SizeBytes 10GB -Dynamic
Add-VMHardDiskDrive -VMName $VMName -Path C:\VirtualMachines\$VMName\Data.vhdx
Start-VM
Exit

Deploy the first domain controller

Once the VMs are created, you can connect to their consoles from Hyper-V manager to install the OS. A better way is to use a sysprep’d image. But because it is a “from scratch” infrastructure, I don’t have a gold master. By using sconfig, you can install updates and enable Remote Desktop. Once the operating systems are deployed, you can connect to the VM across PowerShell Direct.

Below you can find the configuration of the first domain controller:

# Remote connection to first node
Enter-PSSession -ComputerName 10.10.0.5 -Credential pyhyv01\administrator

# Establish a PowerShell direct session to VMADS01
Enter-PSSession -VMName VMADS01 -Credential VMADS01\administrator

# Rename network adapter
Rename-NetAdapter -Name Ethernet -NewName Management-0

# Set IP Addresses
New-NetIPAddress -InterfaceAlias "Management-0" -IPAddress 10.10.0.20 -PrefixLength 24 -Type Unicast | Out-Null

# Set the DNS (this IP is my DNS server for internet in my lab)
Set-DnsClientServerAddress -InterfaceAlias "Management-0" -ServerAddresses 10.10.0.229 | Out-Null

# Initialize and mount the data disk
initialize-disk -Number 1
New-Volume -DiskNumber 1 -FileSystem NTFS -FriendlyName Data -DriveLetter E

# Install required feature
install-WindowsFeature AD-Domain-Services, DNS -IncludeManagementTools

# Deploy the forest
Import-Module ADDSDeployment

Install-ADDSForest `
    -CreateDnsDelegation:$false `
    -DatabasePath "E:\NTDS" `
    -DomainMode "WinThreshold" ` #should be soon Win2016
    -DomainName "int.HomeCloud.net" `
    -DomainNetbiosName "INTHOMECLOUD" `
    -ForestMode "WinThreshold" ` #should be soon Win2016
    -InstallDns:$true `
    -LogPath "E:\NTDS" `
    -NoRebootOnCompletion:$false `
    -SysvolPath "E:\SYSVOL" `
    -Force:$true

Promote the second domain controller

Once the first domain controller is deployed and the forest is ready, you can promote the second domain controller:

Enter-PSSession -ComputerName 10.10.0.6 -Credential pyhyv02\administrator

# Establish a PowerShell direct session to VMADS02
Enter-PSSession -VMName VMADS02 -Credential VMADS02\administrator

# Rename network adapter
Rename-NetAdapter -Name Ethernet -NewName Management-0

# Set IP Addresses
New-NetIPAddress -InterfaceAlias "Management-0" -IPAddress 10.10.0.21 -PrefixLength 24 -Type Unicast | Out-Null

# Set the DNS to the first DC
Set-DnsClientServerAddress -InterfaceAlias "Management-0" -ServerAddresses 10.10.0.20 | Out-Null

# Initialize and mount the data disk
initialize-disk -Number 1
New-Volume -DiskNumber 1 -FileSystem NTFS -FriendlyName Data -DriveLetter E

# Install required feature
install-WindowsFeature AD-Domain-Services, DNS -IncludeManagementTools

# Deploy the forest
Import-Module ADDSDeployment
Install-ADDSDomainController `
    -NoGlobalCatalog:$false `
    -CreateDnsDelegation:$false `
    -Credential (Get-Credential) `
    -CriticalReplicationOnly:$false `
    -DatabasePath "E:\NTDS" `
    -DomainName "int.HomeCloud.net" `
    -InstallDns:$true `
    -LogPath "E:\NTDS" `
    -NoRebootOnCompletion:$false `
    -SiteName "Default-First-Site-Name" `
    -SysvolPath "E:\SYSVOL" `
    -Force:$true

Configure the directory

Once the second server has rebooted, we can configure the directory has below:

Enter-PSSession -computername VMADS01.int.homecloud.net
#Requires -version 4.0
$DN = "DC=int,DC=HomeCloud,DC=net"

# New Default OU
New-ADOrganizationalUnit -Name "Default" -Path $DN
$DefaultDN = "OU=Default,$DN"
New-ADOrganizationalUnit -Name "Computers" -Path $DefaultDN
New-ADOrganizationalUnit -Name "Users" -Path $DefaultDN

# Redir container to OU
cmd /c redircmp "OU=Computers,OU=Default,$DN"
cmd /c redirusr "OU=Users,OU=Default,$DN"

# Create Accounts tree
New-ADOrganizationalUnit -Name "Accounts" -Path $DN
$AccountOU = "OU=Accounts,$DN"
New-ADOrganizationalUnit -Name "Users" -Path $AccountOU
New-ADOrganizationalUnit -Name "Groups" -Path $AccountOU
New-ADOrganizationalUnit -Name "Services" -Path $AccountOU

# Create Servers tree
New-ADOrganizationalUnit -Name "Servers" -Path $DN
$ServersOU = "OU=Servers,$DN"
New-ADOrganizationalUnit -Name "Computers" -Path $ServersOU
New-ADOrganizationalUnit -Name "Groups" -Path $ServersOU
New-ADOrganizationalUnit -Name "CNO" -Path $ServersOU

# New User's groups
$GroupAcctOU = "OU=Groups,$AccountOU"
New-ADGroup -Name "GG-FabricAdmins" -Path $GroupAcctOU -GroupScope DomainLocal -Description "Fabric Server's administrators"
New-ADGroup -Name "GG-SQLAdmins" -Path $GroupAcctOU -GroupScope DomainLocal -Description "SQL Database's administrators"

# New Computer's groups
$GroupCMPOU = "OU=Groups,$ServersOU"
New-ADGroup -Name "GG-Hyperv" -Path $GroupCMPOU -GroupScope DomainLocal -Description "Hyper-V Servers"
New-ADGroup -Name "GG-FabricServers" -Path $GroupCMPOU -GroupScope DomainLocal -Description "Fabric servers"
New-ADGroup -Name "GG-SQLServers" -Path $GroupCMPOU -GroupScope DomainLocal -Description "SQL Servers"
Exit

Ok, our Active Directory is ready, we can now add Hyper-V nodes to the domain 🙂

Add nodes to domain

To add both nodes to the domain, I run the following cmdlets from my laptop:

Enter-PSSession -ComputerName 10.10.0.5 -Credential pyhyv01\administrator
$domain = "int.homecloud.net"
$password = "P@$$w0rd" | ConvertTo-SecureString -asPlainText -Force
$username = "$domain\administrator"
$credential = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential($username,$password)
Add-Computer -DomainName $domain -Credential $credential -OUPath "OU=Computers,OU=Servers,DC=int,DC=HomeCloud,DC=net" -Restart

Wait that pyhyv01 has rebooted and run the following cmdlet on pyhyv02. Now you can log on on pyhyv01 and pyhyv02 with domain credential. You can install Domain Services RSAT on the laptop to parse the Active Directory.

2-node hyperconverged cluster deployment

Now that the Active Directory is available, we can deploy the cluster. First, I test the cluster to verify that all is ok:

Enter-PSSession -ComputerName pyhyv01.int.homecloud.net -credential inthomecloud\administrator
Test-Cluster pyhyv01, pyhyv02 -Include "Storage Spaces Direct",Inventory,Network,"System Configuration"

Check the report if they are issues with the configuration. If the report is good, run the following cmdlets:

# Create the cluster
New-Cluster -Name Cluster-Hyv01 -Node pyhyv01,pyhyv02 -NoStorage -StaticAddress 10.10.0.10

Once the cluster is created, I set a Cloud Witness in order that Azure has a vote for the quorum.

# Add a cloud Witness (require Microsoft Azure account)
Set-ClusterQuorum -CloudWitness -Cluster Cluster-Hyv01 -AccountName "<StorageAccount>" -AccessKey "<AccessKey>"

Then I configure the network name in the cluster:

#Configure network name
(Get-ClusterNetwork -Name "Cluster Network 1").Name="Storage-102"
(Get-ClusterNetwork -Name "Cluster Network 2").Name="Storage-101"
(Get-ClusterNetwork -Name "Cluster Network 3").Name="Cluster-100"
(Get-ClusterNetwork -Name "Cluster Network 4").Name="Management-0"

Next I configure the Node Fairness to run each time a node is added to the cluster and every 30mn. When the CPU of a node will be utilized at 70%, the node fairness will balance the VM across other nodes.

# Configure Node Fairness
(Get-Cluster).AutoBalancerMode = 2
(Get-Cluster).AutoBalancerLevel = 2

Then I configure the Fault Domain Awareness to have a fault tolerance based on rack. It is useless in this configuration, but if you add nodes to the cluster, it can be useful. I enable this because it is recommended to make this configuration before enabling Storage Spaces Direct.

# Configure the Fault Domain Awareness
New-ClusterFaultDomain -Type Site -Name "Lyon"
New-ClusterFaultDomain -Type Rack -Name "Rack-22U-01"
New-ClusterFaultDomain -Type Rack -Name "Rack-22U-02"
New-ClusterFaultDomain -Type Chassis -Name "Chassis-Fabric-01"
New-ClusterFaultDomain -Type Chassis -Name "Chassis-Fabric-02"

Set-ClusterFaultDomain -Name Lyon -Location "France, Lyon 8e"
Set-ClusterFaultDomain -Name Rack-22U-01 -Parent Lyon
Set-ClusterFaultDomain -Name Rack-22U-02 -Parent Lyon
Set-ClusterFaultDomain -Name Chassis-Fabric-01 -Parent Rack-22U-01
Set-ClusterFaultDomain -Name Chassis-Fabric-02 -Parent Rack-22U-02
Set-ClusterFaultDomain -Name pyhyv01 -Parent Chassis-Fabric-01
Set-ClusterFaultDomain -Name pyhyv02 -Parent Chassis-Fabric-02

To finish with the cluster, we have to enable Storage Spaces Direct, and create volume. But before, I run the following script to clean up disks:

icm (Get-Cluster -Name Cluster-Hyv01 | Get-ClusterNode) {
    Update-StorageProviderCache

    Get-StoragePool |? IsPrimordial -eq $false | Set-StoragePool -IsReadOnly:$false -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

    Get-StoragePool |? IsPrimordial -eq $false | Get-VirtualDisk | Remove-VirtualDisk -Confirm:$false -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

    Get-PhysicalDisk | Reset-PhysicalDisk -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue

    Get-Disk |? Number -ne $null |? IsBoot -ne $true |? IsSystem -ne $true |? PartitionStyle -ne RAW |% {

        $_ | Set-Disk -isoffline:$false

        $_ | Set-Disk -isreadonly:$false

        $_ | Clear-Disk -RemoveData -RemoveOEM -Confirm:$false

        $_ | Set-Disk -isreadonly:$true

        $_ | Set-Disk -isoffline:$true

    }

    Get-Disk |? Number -ne $null |? IsBoot -ne $true |? IsSystem -ne $true |? PartitionStyle -eq RAW | Group -NoElement -Property FriendlyName

} | Sort -Property PsComputerName,Count

Now we can enable Storage Spaces Direct and create volumes:

Enable-ClusterStorageSpacesDirect

New-Volume -StoragePoolFriendlyName "S2D*" -FriendlyName CSV-01 -FileSystem CSVFS_ReFS -Size 922GB

New-Volume -StoragePoolFriendlyName "S2D*" -FriendlyName CSV-02 -FileSystem CSVFS_ReFS -Size 922GB

To finish I rename volume in c:\ClusterStorage by their names in the cluster:

Rename-Item -Path C:\ClusterStorage\volume1\ -NewName CSV-01
Rename-Item -Path C:\ClusterStorage\volume2\ -NewName CSV-02

Final Hyper-V configuration

First, I set default VM and virtual disk folders:

Set-VMHOST –computername pyhyv01 –virtualharddiskpath 'C:\ClusterStorage\CSV-01'
Set-VMHOST –computername pyhyv01 –virtualmachinepath 'C:\ClusterStorage\CSV-01'
Set-VMHOST –computername pyhyv02 –virtualharddiskpath 'C:\ClusterStorage\CSV-02'
Set-VMHOST –computername pyhyv02 –virtualmachinepath 'C:\ClusterStorage\CSV-02'

Then I configure the Live-Migration protocol and the number of simultaneous migration allowed:

Enable-VMMigration –Computername pyhyv01, pyhyv02
Set-VMHost -MaximumVirtualMachineMigrations 4 `
           –MaximumStorageMigrations 4 `
           –VirtualMachineMigrationPerformanceOption SMB `
           -ComputerName pyhyv01,pyhyv02

Next I add Kerberos delegation to configure Live-Migration in Kerberos mode:

Enter-PSSession -ComputerName VMADS01.int.homecloud.net
$HyvHost = "pyhyv01"
$Domain = "int.homecloud.net"

Get-ADComputer pyhyv02 | Set-ADObject -Add @{"msDS-AllowedToDelegateTo"="Microsoft Virtual System Migration Service/$HyvHost.$Domain", "cifs/$HyvHost.$Domain","Microsoft Virtual System Migration Service/$HyvHost", "cifs/$HyvHost"}

$HyvHost = "pyhyv02"

Get-ADComputer pyhyv01 | Set-ADObject -Add @{"msDS-AllowedToDelegateTo"="Microsoft Virtual System Migration Service/$HyvHost.$Domain", "cifs/$HyvHost.$Domain","Microsoft Virtual System Migration Service/$HyvHost", "cifs/$HyvHost"}
Exit

Then I set authentication of Live-Migration to Kerberos.

Set-VMHost –Computername pyhyv01, pyhyv02 `
           –VirtualMachineMigrationAuthenticationType Kerberos

Next, I configure the Live-Migration network priority:

To finish I configure the cache size of the CSV to 512MB:

(Get-Cluster).BlockCacheSize = 512

Try a node failure

Now I’d like to shut down a node to verify if the cluster is always up. Let’s see what happening if I shutdown a node:

As you have seen in the above video, even if I stop a node, the workloads still working. When the second node will be startup again, the virtual disks will enter in Regenerating state but you will be able to access to the data.

You can visualize the storage job with the below cmdlet:

Conclusion

2-node configuration is really a great scenario for small office or branch office. Without the cost of an expansive 10GB switch and a SAN, you can have high availability with Storage Spaces Direct. This kind of cluster is not really hard to deploy but I heavily recommend you to leverage PowerShell to make the implementation. Currently I’m working also on VMware vSAN and I can confirm you that Microsoft has a better solution in 2-nodes configuration. In vSAN scenario, you need a third ESX in a third room. In Microsoft environment, you need only a witness in another room as Microsoft Azure with Cloud Witness.

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[Whitepaper] Understand Microsoft Hyper Converged solution https://www.tech-coffee.net/whitepaper-understand-microsoft-hyper-converged-solution/ https://www.tech-coffee.net/whitepaper-understand-microsoft-hyper-converged-solution/#respond Mon, 08 Feb 2016 16:27:00 +0000 https://www.tech-coffee.net/?p=4433 The last two months, I worked with my friend Charbel Nemnom on a whitepaper about Hyper-Convergence, especially by using Microsoft technologies. First of all, this document contains an overview of the IT infrastructure improvement in the last ten years past from before virtualization to Hyper-Convergence. Then we describe how works Microsoft Hyper-Converged solution by talking about Network convergence, ...

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The last two months, I worked with my friend Charbel Nemnom on a whitepaper about Hyper-Convergence, especially by using Microsoft technologies.

First of all, this document contains an overview of the IT infrastructure improvement in the last ten years past from before virtualization to Hyper-Convergence. Then we describe how works Microsoft Hyper-Converged solution by talking about Network convergence, RDMA, SMB, Storage Spaces Direct, ReFS, Hyper-V and so on. To finish, we explain how to deploy this kind of solution on four Nano Servers by using PowerShell. This document will be updated related to the new Windows Server 2016 build.

It was really great to work on this document. We have worked deeper on all new stuff that Microsoft has released and it was really cool. I’d like to thank also Charbel who is friendly and brilliant.

I hope you will really like this document. I’m opened to all comments and questions that you have about this Whitepaper.

Good reading ! 🙂

You can download the document here: https://gallery.technet.microsoft.com/Understand-Hyper-Converged-bae286dd

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Build a HyperConverged infrastructure with NanoServer https://www.tech-coffee.net/build-hyperconverged-infrastructure-nanoserver/ https://www.tech-coffee.net/build-hyperconverged-infrastructure-nanoserver/#respond Sat, 05 Dec 2015 11:15:50 +0000 https://www.tech-coffee.net/?p=4324 Thanks to Windows Server 2016, we will able to implement HyperConverged infrastructure. This marketing word means that storage, network and compute components will be installed locally on servers. So in this solution, there is no need SAN. Instead the Storage Spaces Direct solution will be used (for further information please read this topic). In this topic ...

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Thanks to Windows Server 2016, we will able to implement HyperConverged infrastructure. This marketing word means that storage, network and compute components will be installed locally on servers. So in this solution, there is no need SAN. Instead the Storage Spaces Direct solution will be used (for further information please read this topic). In this topic I’ll describe how to deploy a HyperConverged infrastructure on Nano Servers in Windows Server 2016 TP4. Almost all the configuration will be done with Powershell.

You said HyperConverged?

HyperConverged infrastructure is based on servers where disks are Direct-Attached Storage (DAS) connected internally or by using a JBOD tray. Each server (at least four to implement Storage Space Direct) has their own storage devices. So there are no shared disks or JBODs.

HyperConverged infrastructure is based on known features as Failover Cluster, Cluster Shared Volume, and Storage Space. However, because storage devices are not shared between each node, we need something more to create a Clustered Storage Space with DAS devices. This is called Storage Space Direct. Below you can find the Storage Spaces Direct stack.

On network side, Storage Space Direct leverage at least 10G networks RDMA capable. This is because replications that occur though Software Storage Bus need low latency that RDMA provides.

Requirements

Because I have not enough hardware in my lab, I deploy the hyperconverged infrastructure to virtual machines. Now that we have nested Hyper-V, we can do this J. To follow this topic, you need these requirements:

  • Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview 4 ISO
  • A Hyper-V host installed with Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview 4
  • This script to enable nested Hyper-V

Create Nano Server VHDX image

To create a Nano Server image, you have to copy Convert-WindowsImage.ps1 and NanoServerImageGenerator.psm1 to a folder.

Then I have written a short script to create the four Nano Server VHDX :

Import-Module C:\temp\NanoServer\NanoServerImageGenerator.psm1
# Nano Server Name
$NanoServers = "HCNano01", "HCNano02", "HCNano03", "HCNano04"
$IP = 170
Foreach ($HCNano in $NanoServers){
	New-NanoServerImage -MediaPath "D:" `
			    -BasePath C:\temp\NanoServer\Base `
			    -TargetPath $("C:\temp\NanoServer\Images\" + $HCNano + ".vhdx")`
			    -ComputerName $HCNano `
			    -InterfaceNameOrIndex Ethernet `
			    -Ipv4Address 10.10.0.$IP `
			    -Ipv4SubnetMask 255.255.255.0 `
			    -Ipv4Gateway 10.10.0.1 `
			    -DomainName int.homecloud.net `
			    -Clustering `
			    -GuestDrivers `
			    -Storage `
			    -Packages Microsoft-NanoServer-Compute-Package, Microsoft-Windows-Server-SCVMM-Compute-Package, Microsoft-Windows-Server-SCVMM-Package `
			    -EnableRemoteManagementPort
	 $IP++
}

This script creates a Nano Server VHDX image for each machine called HCNano01, HCNano02, HCNano03 and HCNano04. I set also the domain and the IP address. I add cluster feature, guest drivers, storage and Hyper-V features and SCVMM agent if you need to add your cluster to VMM later. For more information about the Nano Server image creation, please read this topic.

Then I launch this script. Sorry, you can’t take a coffee while the VHDX are created because you have to enter manually administrator password for each image J

Once the script is finished, you should have four VHDX as below.

Ok, now we have our four images. The next step is the Virtual Machine creation.

Virtual Machine configuration

Create Virtual Machines

To create virtual machines, connect to your Hyper-V Host running on Windows Server 2016 TP4. To create and configure Virtual Machines I have written this script:

$NanoServers = "HCNano01", "HCNano02", "HCNano03", "HCNano04"
Foreach ($HCNano in $NanoServers){
	New-VM -Name $HCNano `
	       -Path D: `
               -NoVHD `
	       -Generation 2 `
	       -MemoryStartupBytes 8GB `
	       -SwitchName LS_VMWorkload

	Set-VM -Name $HCNano `
	       -ProcessorCount 4 `
	       -StaticMemory

	Add-VMNetworkAdapter -VMName $HCNano -SwitchName LS_VMWorkload
	Set-VMNetworkAdapter -VMName $HCNano -MacAddressSpoofing On -AllowTeaming On
}

This script creates four virtual machines called HCNano01, HCNano02, HCNano03 and HCNano04. These Virtual Machines will be stored in D:\ and no VHDx will be mounted. These Virtual Machines are Gen2 with 4 vCPU and 8GB of static memory. Then I add a second network adapter to make a teaming inside the Virtual Machines (with Switch Embedded Teaming). So I enable Mac Spoofing and the Teaming on Virtual Network Adapters. Below you can find the result.

Now, copy each Nano Server VHDX image inside its related Virtual Machine folder. Below an example:

Then I run this script to add this VHDX to each virtual machine:

$NanoServers = "HCNano01", "HCNano02", "HCNano03", "HCNano04"
Foreach ($HCNano in $NanoServers){
    
    # Add the virtual disk to VMs
    Add-VMHardDiskDrive -VMName $HCNano `
                        -Path $("D:\" + $HCNano + "\" + $HCNano + ".vhdx")

    
    $VirtualDrive = Get-VMHardDiskDrive -VMName $HCNano `
                                        -ControllerNumber 0
    # Change the boot order
    Set-VMFirmware -VMName $HCNano -FirstBootDevice $VirtualDrive
}

This script adds the VHDX to each Virtual Machine and change the boot device order to boot hard drive first. Ok our virtual machines are ready. Now we have to add storage for Storage Space usage.

Create virtual disks for storage

Now I’m going to create 10 disks for each virtual machine. These disks are dynamic and their sizes are 10GB. (oh come-on, it’s a lab :p).

$NanoServers = "HCNano01", "HCNano02", "HCNano03", "HCNano04"
Foreach ($HCNano in $NanoServers){
	$NbrVHDX = 10
	For ($i = 1 ;$i -le $NbrVHDX; $i++){
		New-VHD -Path $("D:\" + $HCNano + "\" + $HCNano + "-Disk" + $i + ".vhdx") `
			-SizeBytes 10GB `
			-Dynamic

		Add-VMHardDiskDrive -VMName $HCNano `
				    -Path $("D:\" + $HCNano + "\" + $HCNano + "-Disk" + $i + ".vhdx")
	}
	Start-VM -Name $HCNano
}

This script creates 10 virtual disks for each virtual machine and mount them to these VMs. Then each Virtual Machine is started.

At this moment, we have four VMs with hardware well configured. So now we have to configure the software part.

Hyper-V host side configuration

Enable trunk on Nano Server virtual network adapters

Each Nano Server will have four different virtual NICs with four different subnets and four different VLAN. These virtual NICs are connected to the Hyper-V host virtual NICs (yes nested virtualization is really Inception). Because we need four different VLANs we have to configure trunk on Virtual NICs on the Hyper-V Host. By running the Get-VMNetworkAdapterVLAN Powershell command you should have something like that:

For each Network Adapter that you have created in Virtual Machines, you have the allowed VLAN and the Mode (trunk, Access or untagged). It’s depending on the configuration that you made in the virtual machine. But regarding your HyperConverged Virtual Machines, we need three allowed VLAN and so trunk mode. To configure Virtual network Adapter to trunk mode, I run the below script on my Hyper-V host:

Set-VMNetworkAdapterVlan -VMName HCNano01 -Trunk -NativeVlanId 0 -AllowedVlanIdList "10,100,101,102"
Set-VMNetworkAdapterVlan -VMName HCNano02 -Trunk -NativeVlanId 0 -AllowedVlanIdList "10,100,101,102"
Set-VMNetworkAdapterVlan -VMName HCNano03 -Trunk -NativeVlanId 0 -AllowedVlanIdList "10,100,101,102"
Set-VMNetworkAdapterVlan -VMName HCNano04 -Trunk -NativeVlanId 0 -AllowedVlanIdList "10,100,101,102"

So for each network adapter, I allow VLAN 10, 100, 101 and 102. The NativeVlanId is set to 0 to leave untagged all other traffics. After running the above script, I run again Get-VMNetworkAdapterVLAN and I have the below configuration.

Enable nested Hyper-V

Now we have to enable nested Hyper-V to be able to run Hyper-V inside Hyper-V (oh my god, I have a headache. Where is Dicaprio?). Microsoft provides a script to enable nested Hyper-V. You can find it here. I have copied the script to a file called nested.ps1. Next just run nested.ps1 –VMName <VMName> for each VM. Then you should have something as below. Then the VM will be stopped.


Then restart the four Nano Servers VMs.

Configure Nano Server system

To configure Nano Server, I will sometime leverage Powershell Direct. To use it, just run Enter-PSSession –VMName <VMName> -Credential <VMName>\Administrator. Once you are connected to the system, you can configure it. So because I’m a lazy guy, I have written one script to configure each server. The below script change the time zone, create a Switch Embedded Teaming, set the IP Addresses, enable RDMA and install the features needed. This time, when you have run this script, you can take a coffee J.

$Credential = Get-Credential
$IPMgmt = 170
$IPSto = 10
$IPLM = 170
$IPClust = 170
$NanoServers = "HCNano01", "HCNano02", "HCNano03", "HCNano04"

Foreach ($HCNano in $NanoServers){
    Enter-PSSession –VMName $HCNano –Credential $Credential
    #Change the TimeZone to Romance Standard Time
    tzutil /s "Romance Standard Time"
    # Create a Swtich Embedded Teaming with both Network Adapters
    New-VMSwitch -Name Management -EnableEmbeddedTeaming $True -AllowManagementOS $True -NetAdapterName "Ethernet", "Ethernet 2"
    # Add Virtual NICs for Storage, Cluster and Live-Migration
    Add-VMNetworkAdapter -ManagementOS -Name "Storage" -SwitchName Management
    Add-VMNetworkAdapter -ManagementOS -Name "Cluster" -SwitchName Management
    Add-VMNetworkAdapter -ManagementOS -Name "LiveMigration" -SwitchName Management
    # Set the IP Address for each virtual NIC
    netsh interface ip set address "vEthernet (Management)" static 10.10.0.$IPMgmt 255.255.255.0 10.10.0.1
    netsh interface ip set dns "vEthernet (Management)" static 10.10.0.20
    netsh interface ip set address "vEthernet (Storage)" static 10.10.102.$IPSto 255.255.255.192
    netsh interface ip set address "vEthernet (LiveMigration)" static 10.10.101.$IPLM 255.255.255.0
    netsh interface ip set address "vEthernet (Cluster)" static 10.10.100.$IPClust 255.255.255.0
    # Enable RDMA on Storage and Live-Migration
    Enable-NetAdapterRDMA -Name "vEthernet (Storage)"
    Enable-NetAdapterRDMA -Name "vEthernet (LiveMigration)"
    # Add DNS on Management vNIC
    netsh interface ip set dns "vEthernet (Management)" static 10.10.0.20
    Exit
    # Install File Server and Storage Replica feature
    install-WindowsFeature FS-FileServer, Storage-Replica -ComputerName $HCNano
    # Restarting the VM
    Restart-VM –Name $HCNano
    $IPMgmt++
    $IPSto++
    $IPLM++
    $IPClust++
}

At the end, I have 4 virtual NICs as you can see with Get-NetAdapter command:

Then I have a Switch Embedded Teaming called Management composed of two Network Adapters.

To finish I have well activated RDMA on Storage and Live-Migration Networks.

So the network is ready on each node. Now we have just to create the cluster J

Create and configure the cluster

First of all, I run a Test-Cluster to verify if my nodes are ready to be part of a Storage Space Direct Cluster. So I run the below command:

Test-Cluster -Node "HCNano01", "HCNano02", "HCNano03", "HCNano04" -Include "Storage Spaces Direct", Inventory,Network,"System Configuration"

I have a warning in the network configuration because I use private networks for storage and cluster and so there is no ping possible across these both networks. So I ignore this Warning. So let’s start the cluster creation:

New-Cluster –Name HCCluster –Node HCNode01, HCNode02, HCNode03, HCNode04 –NoStorage –StaticAddress 10.10.0.174

Then the cluster is formed:

Now we can configure the Networks. I start by changing the name and set the Storage Network’s role by Cluster and Client.

(Get-ClusterNetwork -Cluster HCCluster -Name "Cluster Network 1").Name="Management"
(Get-ClusterNetwork -Cluster HCCluster -Name "Cluster Network 2").Name="Storage"
(Get-ClusterNetwork -Cluster HCCluster -Name "Cluster Network 3").Name="Cluster"
(Get-ClusterNetwork -Cluster HCCluster -Name "Cluster Network 4").Name="Live-Migration"
(Get-ClusterNetwork -Cluster HCCluster -Name "Storage").Role="ClusterAndClient"

Then I change the Live-Migration settings in order that the cluster use Live-Migration network for … Live-Migration usage. I don’t use Powershell for this step because It is easier to make it by using the GUI.

Then I configure a witness by using the new feature in Windows Server 2016: the Cloud Witness.

Set-ClusterQuorum -Cluster HCCluster -CloudWitness -AccountName homecloud -AccessKey &lt;AccessKey&gt;

Then I enable Storage Spaces Direct on my Cluster. Please read this topic to use the right command to enable the Storage Spaces Direct. It can change related to storage devices you use (NVMe + SSD, or SSD + HDD and so on).

Ok, the cluster is now ready. We can create some Storage Spaces for our Virtual Machines.

Create Storage Spaces

Because I run commands remotely, we have first to connect to the storage provider with Register-StorageSubSystem PowerShell cmdlet.

Register-StorageSubSystem –ComputerName HCCluster.int.homecloud.net –ProviderName *

Now when I run Get-StorageSubSystem as below, I can see the storage provider on the cluster.

Now I verify if disks are well recognized and can be added to a Storage Pool. As you can see below, I have my 40 disks.

Next I create a Storage Pool with all disks available.

New-StoragePool -StorageSubSystemName HCCluster.int.homecloud.net `
                -FriendlyName VMPool `
                -WriteCacheSizeDefault 0 `
                -ProvisioningTypeDefault Fixed `
                -ResiliencySettingNameDefault Mirror `
                -PhysicalDisk (Get-StorageSubSystem -Name HCCluster.int.homecloud.net | Get-PhysicalDisk)

If I come back in the Failover Cluster GUI, I have a new Storage Pool called VMPool.

Then I create two volumes in mirroring. One has 4 columns and the other 2 columns. Each volume is formatted in ReFS and their sizes are 50GB.

New-Volume -StoragePoolFriendlyName VMPool `
           -FriendlyName VMStorage01 `
           -NumberOfColumns 4 `
           -PhysicalDiskRedundancy 2 `
           -FileSystem CSVFS_REFS `
           –Size 50GB

New-Volume -StoragePoolFriendlyName VMPool `
           -FriendlyName VMStorage02 `
           -NumberOfColumns 2 `
           -PhysicalDiskRedundancy 2 `
           -FileSystem CSVFS_REFS `
           –Size 50GB

Now I have two Cluster Virtual Disks and they are mounted on C:\ClusterStorage\VolumeX.

Host VMs

So I create a Virtual Machines and I use C:\ClusterStorage to host VMs files.

Then I try to run the virtual machines. If it is running, all is working, included nested Hyper-V J.

I try a ping on my Active Directory and on Google. It’s working oh yeah.

Conclusion

HyperConverged is a great flexible solution. As you have seen above it is not so hard to install this solution. However, I think this solution needs a real hard work to size it. It is necessary to have strong knowledge on Storage Space, networks and Hyper-V. In my opinion, Nano Servers are a great solution for this kind of solution because of the small footprint on disks and compute resources. Moreover, they are less exposed to Microsoft Update and so to reboot. To finish, Nano Servers reboot quickly and so we can enter in the trend “Fail Hard but fail fast”. I hope that Microsoft will not kill its HyperConverged solution with Windows Server 2016 license model …

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